Establishing the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS): Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study.

Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating research-to-action.
While having these positive attributes, the community-based health research literature is predominantly composed of small projects, using qualitative methods, and set within geographically limited communities. Its use in larger health studies, including clinical trials and cohorts, is limited. We present the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), a large-scale, multi-site, national, longitudinal quantitative study that has operationalized community-based research in all steps of the research process. Successes, challenges and further considerations are offered.
Through the integration of community-based research principles, we have been successful in: facilitating a two-year long formative phase for this study; developing a novel survey instrument with national involvement; training 39 Peer Research Associates (PRAs); offering ongoing comprehensive support to PRAs; and engaging in an ongoing iterative community-based research process.
Our community-based research approach within CHIWOS demanded that we be cognizant of challenges managing a large national team, inherent power imbalances and challenges with communication, compensation and volunteering considerations, and extensive delays in institutional processes. It is important to consider the iterative nature of community-based research and to work through tensions that emerge given the diverse perspectives of numerous team members.
Community-based research, as an approach to large-scale quantitative health research projects, is an increasingly viable methodological option. Community-based research has several advantages that go hand-in-hand with its obstacles. We offer guidance on implementing this approach, such that the process can be better planned and result in success.
Establishing the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS): Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study.
Establishing the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS): Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study.

Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for HIV-1.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most lethal pandemics in human history, although in recent years access to highly effective anti-retroviral therapy has provided new hope worldwide. Transmission of HIV by sexual contact, childbirth and injection drug use has been reduced, but 2 million are newly infected each year, and much of the transmission is from people who do not know their status. In addition to known methods, a preventive vaccine is needed to end the pandemic.

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Description: Nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT)

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Description: Nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT)

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Description: Nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT)

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Blue Tetrazolium

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Description: Tetrazolium salt

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Description: Tetrazolium salt

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Tetrazolium Blue Chloride

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Description: Tetrazolium Blue Chloride

Methylthialazole Tetrazolium

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TRIPHENYL TETRAZOLIUM CHLORIDE

T8164 PhytoTechnology Laboratories 100G 24.14 EUR

Tetrazolium Blue Chloride (>90%)

T310700 Toronto Research Chemicals 10g 265 EUR
Description: 1871-22-3

Tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride

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Tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride

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Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide

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Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide

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Tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride (TNBT)

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Cyanoditolyl Tetrazolium Chloride (CTC)

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Cyanoditolyl Tetrazolium Chloride (CTC)

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Description: Blue tetrazolium chloride, Hi-AR™

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Description: Blue tetrazolium chloride, Hi-AR™

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Description: Ultra Pure

Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide [MTT)

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Description: Ultra Pure

Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide [MTT)

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Tryptone Sucrose Tetrazolium Agar Base

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CTC (5-Cyano-2, 3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride)

10063 Biotium 10MG 62 EUR
Description: N/A

CTC (5-Cyano-2, 3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride)

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2 5-Diphenyl-3-(4-Styrylphenyl)tetrazolium Chloride_x000D_

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MTT(Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) for Cell Culture Grade

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Diisopropylammonium Tetrazolide

D679965 Toronto Research Chemicals 1g 63 EUR
Description: 93183-36-9

(RS)-(Tetrazol-5-yl)glycine

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Description: NMDA receptor agonist

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Description: (RS)-(Tetrazol-5-yl)glycine

(RS)-(Tetrazol-5-yl)glycine

R700965 Toronto Research Chemicals 100mg 1800 EUR
Description: 138199-51-6

Tetrazole

A7061-100000 ApexBio 100 g 87 EUR
Description: organic heterocyclic compound

Tetrazole

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Description: organic heterocyclic compound

Tetrazole

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Description: Tetrazole

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Description: Tetrazole

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Description: Tetrazole

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Description: Tetrazole

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Description: Tetrazole

Tetrazole

5-02259 CHI Scientific 25g 49.14 EUR

Tetrazole

5-02260 CHI Scientific 100g 148.79 EUR

Tetrazole

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5-Methyl tetrazole

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5-Methyl Tetrazole

M330255 Toronto Research Chemicals 10g 259 EUR
Description: 4076-36-2

Dibromo OTB Tetrazole

D255760 Toronto Research Chemicals 100mg 594 EUR
Description: 1127249-17-5

Tetrazole-1-acetic acid

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Tetrazole-1-acetic acid

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5-Ethylthio-1(H)-tetrazole

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5-Ethylthio-1(H)-tetrazole

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5-Ethylthio-1(H)-tetrazole

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Tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine

T307800 Toronto Research Chemicals 100mg 115 EUR
Description: 234-82-2

42-(2-Tetrazolyl)rapamycin

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42-(2-Tetrazolyl)rapamycin

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Description: 42-(2-Tetrazolyl)rapamycin

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Description: 42-(2-Tetrazolyl)rapamycin

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Description: 42-(2-Tetrazolyl)rapamycin

5-Benzoyl-2H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole

B410605 Toronto Research Chemicals 100mg 800 EUR
Description: 14506-41-3

5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

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5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

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5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

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5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

GK3683-250 Glentham Life Sciences 250 145.5 EUR

5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

GK3683-250G Glentham Life Sciences 250 g 212.4 EUR

5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

GK3683-25G Glentham Life Sciences 25 g 70.8 EUR

5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

GK3683-500 Glentham Life Sciences 500 253.1 EUR

5-Amino-1(H)-tetrazole hydrate

GK3683-500G Glentham Life Sciences 500 g 342 EUR

8-Amino-4-oxo-2-(tetrazol-5-yl)benzopyran

A618785 Toronto Research Chemicals 1g 92 EUR
Description: 110683-22-2

[1,1'-Biphenyl]-2’-tetrazolo-4-carboxylic acid, [1,1'-biphenyl]-2’-tetrazolo-4-ylmethyl ester (Losartan Impurity)

B398000 Toronto Research Chemicals 10mg 173 EUR
Description: 1159977-10-2

Tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-7-amine

T307830 Toronto Research Chemicals 500mg 1200 EUR
Description: 1228551-77-6

5-(3-Bromopropyl)-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole

B804210 Toronto Research Chemicals 500mg 800 EUR
Description: 868600-66-2

5-(4'-Methyl-2-biphenyl)tetrazole

M294135 Toronto Research Chemicals 100mg 138 EUR
Description: 120568-11-8

The extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of HIV is an enormous challenge, but vaccines are being designed for broad coverage. Computer-aided design of mosaic immunogens, incorporating many epitopes from the entire genome or from conserved regions aim to induce CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells or inhibit virus replication, while trimeric envelope proteins or synthetic mimics aim to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies similar to those cloned from some infected patients.

Induction of more potent and durable responses may require new adjuvants or replicating chimeric vectors chimeras that bear HIV genes. Passive or genetic delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide broad protection and/or lead to insights for vaccine designers. Proof-of-concept trials in non-human primates and in one human efficacy trial have provided scientific clues for a vaccine that could provide broad and durable protection against HIV. The use of vaccines to destroy HIV reservoirs as part of therapy or cure is now also being explored.

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